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What is sputtering targets?
Jun 16, 2017

The coating target is a sputtering source that is sputtered on a substrate to form various functional films by magnetron sputtering, multi-arc ion plating or other types of coating systems under suitable process conditions. In short, the target is the target material for high-speed charge particles bombardment. For high-energy laser weapons, different power densities, different output waveforms, different wavelengths of laser interaction with different targets, will produce different damage effect. For example: Evaporative magnetron sputtering coating is heating evaporation coating, aluminum film and so on. Replacement of different targets (such as aluminum, copper, stainless steel, titanium, nickel target, etc.), you can get a different film (such as superhard, wear, corrosion of the alloy film, etc).


Material classification

⒈ metal target

Ni, titanium target, Ti, zinc target, Zn, chromium target, Cr, magnesium target, Mg, niobium target Nb, tin target, Sn, aluminum target, Al, indium target, In, Zirconium, aluminum target, TiAl, zirconium target, Zr, aluminum target, AlSi, silicon target, Si, copper target Cu, tantalum target Ta, germanium target, Ge, silver target, Ag, cobalt target Cu, tungsten target  w, stainless steel target, nickel chromium target, NiCr, hafnium target, Hf, molybdenum target, La, yttrium target, Mo, iron nickel target, FeNi, tungsten target, W and so on.

⒉ ceramic target

ITO target, magnesium oxide target, iron oxide target, silicon nitride target, silicon carbide target, titanium nitride target, chromium oxide target, zinc oxide target, zinc sulfide target, silica target, silica target, cerium oxide target , Zirconia target, niobium pentoxide target, titanium dioxide target, zirconia target, hafnium dioxide target, titanium diboride target, zirconium diboride target, tungsten trioxide target, aluminum oxide target pentaoxide Tantalum, niobium pentoxide target, magnesium fluoride target, yttrium fluoride target, zinc selenide target, aluminum nitride target, silicon nitride target, boron nitride target, titanium nitride target, silicon carbide target, niobate Lithium target, praseodymium titanate target, barium titanate target, lanthanum titanate target, nickel oxide target, sputtering target and so on.


⒊ alloy target

Iron and cobalt target FeS, aluminum silicon target AlSi, titanium silicon target TiSi, chromium silicon target CrSi, zinc aluminum target ZnAl, titanium zinc target TiZn, titanium aluminum target TiAl, titanium zirconium target TiZr, titanium silicon target TiSi, titanium nickel target TiNi , Nickel chromium target NiCr, nickel aluminum target NiAl, nickel vanadium target NiV, nickel iron target NiFe, etc.


Magnetron sputtering target

1) magnetron sputtering principle:

An orthorhombic magnetic field and an electric field are applied between the sputtering target (cathode) and the anode, and the required inert gas (usually Ar gas) is charged in the high vacuum chamber. The permanent magnet forms 250 to 350 on the surface of the target material Gaussian magnetic field, with the high voltage electric field composed of orthogonal electromagnetic field. Under the action of the electric field, Ar gas is ionized into positive ions and electrons, the target is added with a certain negative high pressure, the electrons emitted from the target are affected by the magnetic field and the ionization probability of the working gas increases, forming a high density plasma in the vicinity of the cathode Body, Ar ions in the role of Lorentz force to accelerate the flight to the target surface, at a high speed bombardment of the target surface, so that the sputtering of the target atoms follow the momentum conversion principle with a high kinetic energy from the target fly The substrate is deposited and deposited. Magnetron sputtering is generally divided into two kinds: DC sputtering and RF sputtering, DC splash device which is simple in principle, in the sputtering of metal, its rate is also fast. The use of RF sputtering is more extensive, in addition to sputtering conductive material, but also sputtering non-conductive materials, but also can be reactive sputtering preparation of oxides, nitrides and carbides and other compounds. If the frequency of the radio frequency after the microwave plasma sputtering, and now, commonly used electronic cyclotron resonance (ECR) type microwave plasma sputtering.

2) magnetron sputtering target type:

Metal sputtering coating target, alloy sputtering coating target, ceramic sputtering coating target, boride ceramic sputtering target, carbide ceramic sputtering target, fluoride ceramic sputtering target, nitride ceramic sputtering Target, oxide ceramic target, selenide ceramic sputtering target, silicide ceramic sputtering target, sulfide ceramic sputtering target, telluride ceramic sputtering target, other ceramic target, chrome-doped Silicon ceramic target (Cr-SiO), indium phosphide target (InP), lead arsenide target (PbAs), indium arsenide target (InAs).


Application 

It is well known that the development trend of target materials is closely related to the development trend of thin film technology in downstream application industry. With the application of technology in thin film products or components, the target technology should also change. Such as Ic manufacturers. Recently, the development of low-resistivity copper wiring is expected to replace the original aluminum film in the next few years, so that the development of copper target and its required barrier target will be urgent. In addition, in recent years, flat panel display (F P D) significantly replaced the original cathode ray tube (CRT) -based computer monitors and TV market. Will also significantly increase ITO target technology and market demand. In addition to storage technology. High-density, high-capacity hard drives, high-density rewritable discs continue to increase. These have led to changes in the demand for the target industry. Below we will introduce the main application areas of the target, as well as the development trend of these targets.


1.Microelectronics field

In all application industries, the semiconductor industry on the target sputtering film quality requirements are the most demanding. Now 12-inch (3 0 0 out of the mouth) of the silicon chip has been manufactured. While the width of the interconnect is decreasing. The requirements of the wafer manufacturer for the target are large size, high purity, low segregation and fine grain, which requires the manufactured target to have a better microstructure. The diameter and uniformity of the crystal particles of the target are considered to be the key factors affecting the deposition rate of the film. In addition, the purity of the film is critical to the purity of the target, and the 99.995% (4 N5) purity copper target may meet the requirements of the semiconductor manufacturer's 0.3 5 pm process, but it can not meet the current process requirements of 0.2 5 μm Rice 0.18um} art even 0.13m process, the required target purity will be required to reach 5 or even 6N or more. Copper compared with aluminum, copper has a higher resistance to electromigration and lower resistivity, to meet! The need for submicron wiring with a conductor process below 0.25 μm but with other problems: copper and organic media have low adhesion strength. And prone to reaction, resulting in the use of the process of copper interconnection of the chip was broken and open circuit. In order to solve these problems, it is necessary to provide a barrier between the copper and the dielectric layer. The barrier material typically uses high melting point, high resistivity metals and their compounds, and therefore requires a barrier layer thickness of less than 50 nm, with good adhesion to copper and dielectric materials. Copper interconnection and aluminum interconnection of the barrier material are different. Need to develop new target materials. The barrier material for the copper interconnection includes T a, W, T a S i, WS i, and the like. But T a, W are refractory metals. Production is relatively difficult, and now is studying molybdenum, chromium and other gold as a substitute material.

2.For display

Flat-panel displays (FPDs) have undermined the market for computer monitors and televisions dominated by cathode ray tubes (CRTs) over the years, and will also drive the ITO target's technology and market requirements. There are two kinds of i T O targets today. One is the use of nanometer state of indium oxide and tin oxide powder mixed sintering, one is the use of indium tin alloy target. Indium-tin-gold target can be used to produce I T O films by DC reactive sputtering, but the target surface is oxidized to affect the sputtering rate and is not easy to obtain large-scale gold target. Now generally take the first method to produce I T O target, using L} I R F reactive sputtering coating. It has a high deposition rate. And can accurately control the film thickness, high conductivity, good consistency of the film, and the substrate adhesion and other advantages l. However, the target is difficult to manufacture, because indium oxide and tin oxide are not easily sintered together. The use of Zr O2, B i 2 O 3, C e O, etc. as a sintering additive, can be obtained with a theoretical value of 9 3% to 9 8% of the target, the formation of ITO film in this way the performance and additives The relationship is great. Japanese scientists use B izo as an additive, B i 2 O 3 melts at 8 2 0 ° C, and the sintering temperature at 150 ° C is already volatilized, so that a relatively pure ITO target can be obtained under liquid sintering conditions The And the required oxide raw materials are not necessarily nanoparticles, which can simplify the pre-process. The rejection rate of I T O films obtained from such targets was 8. 1 × 1 0 n-c m, close to the pure I T O film resistivity. F P D and the size of the conductive glass are quite fire, the width of the conductive glass can even reach 3 1 3 3 _, in order to improve the utilization of the target, the development of different shapes of I T O target, such as cylindrical and so on. In 2000, the National Development Planning Commission, the Ministry of Science and Technology in the "priority development of the information industry priority field guide", I T O large target also included.

3.For storage

In the storage technology, high-density, high-capacity hard drive development, the need for a large number of giant magnetoresistive film materials, CoF ~ Cu multi-layer composite film is now widely used giant magnetoresistive film structure. Magneto-optical discs need to T b F e C o alloy target is still further development, with its manufacture of magneto-optical disc with storage capacity, long life, can be repeated non-contact erase characteristics. Nowadays, the magneto-optical discs developed with T b F e C o / T a and T b F e C o / Al have a Kerr rotation angle of 5 8 and T b F E Co f F a can be close to 0.8. After the study found that the low permeability of the target high AC partial discharge voltage l dielectric strength.


The phase change memory (PCM) based on germanium antimony telluride shows significant commercial potential and is an alternative memory technology for NOR-type flash memory and partial DRAM markets, but is present on a more rapidly scalable road One of the challenges is the lack of a fully enclosed unit capable of producing a further reduction in the reset current. Reducing the reset current reduces memory power consumption, extends battery life and increases data bandwidth, which is a very important feature for today's data-centric, highly portable consumer devices.