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Application Of Titanium Alloy In Automobile
Apr 12, 2017

In recent years, with the development of the automobile industry, the world's automobile production and holdings are increasing. China's automobile industry in 2009 by leaps and bounds, automobile production and sales more than 1,300 million, more than the United States, Japan became the world's largest automobile production and sales. Car to bring convenience to people at the same time also produced fuel consumption, environmental protection, security, three major issues. Focusing on sustainable development considerations, reducing fuel consumption and reducing emissions is particularly urgent. According to the international authority of the statistics of car fuel consumption of about 60% of the car consumed in the car. Each 10% reduction in vehicle emissions, emissions can be reduced by 10%, can reduce fuel consumption by 7%. Thus, car weight loss, lightweight is to achieve the above objectives of the effective measures.     

     There are two main ways to achieve the weight of the car: one is to optimize the structure of the car frame; the other is the use of lightweight materials in the automotive manufacturing. At present, the use of light alloy on the car mainly aluminum, magnesium, titanium and other metals.

1, Titanium alloy in the application and characteristics of the car

Titanium alloy is a new type of structural and functional materials, it has excellent overall performance, low density, high strength. The density of titanium is 4.51 g / cm3, between aluminum (2.7 g / cm3) and iron (7.6 g / cm3). Titanium alloy than the strength of aluminum and steel, toughness and iron and steel quite. Titanium and titanium alloy corrosion resistance is better than stainless steel, especially in the marine atmospheric environment resistance to chloride ion erosion and micro-oxidation atmosphere corrosion resistance, titanium alloy operating temperature is wide, low temperature titanium alloy at -253 ℃ But also to maintain a good plasticity, and heat-resistant titanium alloy working temperature up to 550 ℃ or so, the heat resistance was significantly higher than the aluminum and magnesium alloy. At the same time with good processing, welding performance.

Titanium and titanium alloy excellent performance since the industrialization of titanium production has been much attention from the cutting-edge industries, accompanied by the beginning of the titanium industry, in the mid-1950s, titanium into the automotive industry. In the 1990s, with the world's energy shortage and people's awareness of environmental protection, especially in the automotive industry, the United States, Japan and Europe and other countries have promulgated a series of ecological regulations, fuel efficiency, CO2 emissions, car weight loss, Car safety, reliability, etc. put forward higher requirements. Many developed countries and well-known car manufacturers are actively developing and increasing research on titanium in automotive research. Titanium for the car to provide a powerful driving force. Into the new century, China's titanium industry has gradually entered the field of cars.

In the current automotive market, with the luxury cars, sports cars and racing demand increased year by year, titanium parts also increased year by year. In 1990, the world's titanium was only 50 tons / year, 500 tons / year in 1997, 1100 tons / year in 2002 and 3,000 tons / year in 2009. This shows that the automotive industry with titanium into the accelerated phase.

2, The use of titanium parts in the car

The use of titanium in the car is mainly divided into two categories, the first category is used to reduce the quality of internal combustion engine reciprocating parts (for reciprocating internal combustion engine parts, even if the quality of a few grams is important); the second category Is used to reduce the total mass of the car. According to the design and material properties, titanium is mainly distributed in the new generation of automotive engine components and chassis components. In the engine system, titanium can be made valves, valve springs, valve spring seat and connecting rod and other components; in the chassis components mainly spring, exhaust system, shaft and fasteners.

According to information, in addition to the above points, there are: engine parts of the rocker, suspension spring, piston pin, turbocharger rotor, fasteners, hanging ear nuts, vehicle bracket, door into the beam, brakes Caliper piston, pin bolt, clutch disc, pressure plate, variable speed button and so on.

The way to reduce the cost of titanium alloy. Although titanium and titanium alloy as early as the last century 50's into the automotive manufacturing field, but the development is relatively slow, the main reason is the price factor, in order to meet the automotive industry with titanium, titanium industry in the smelting, processing, manufacturing and other aspects A lot of work. To meet the needs of the automotive industry.

Titanium high melting point, the chemical nature is very lively, and O, H, N, C and other elements have a strong chemical affinity, resulting in difficult extraction of pure titanium. Production of Sponge Titanium by Kroll Magnesium Reduction Methodally Used in Industry. Kroll magnesium reduction method to produce sponge titanium process is complex, high energy consumption, long cycle, and can not be continuous production, while the need for a large number of magnesium metal as a reducing agent, the production cost is higher.

Another reason for the high price of titanium alloy is the higher price of alloying elements. With the progress of titanium smelting technology, titanium in the production and processing of the corner produced by the residual material, waste and other debris by the series after the treatment as a charge to add to achieve the cycle of production is an effective way to reduce the cost of raw materials. Practice shows that the use of 1% residual titanium, titanium rod production costs can be reduced by 0.8%. If the use of electron beam cold bed furnace, plasma cooling furnace bed smelting, not only can improve the quality of titanium ingot metallurgy, while a large number of the use of recycled charge, effectively reduce the cost of ingot.

3, Reduce processing costs

  Accounting for more than 60% of the total cost of processing costs is the focus of countries to reduce costs. Titanium parts in the production process is not only complex process, while in the production process produced a large number of residual titanium, and the production cycle is longer, resulting in component production costs. Hinder its more widely used.

  Casting is a classic (near) net forming process. Production of parts without machining or machining very little, thus saving a lot of metal. Casting can often produce complex parts of the shape, and these parts using other traditional methods of manufacturing process complexity, higher production costs, especially for the relatively high price of titanium materials. At present, a large number of titanium castings are used in the aviation industry. In the automobile manufacturing industry, the parts produced by the casting method are valves, turbo-generators and so on.

  As a modern metallurgical and material processing technology, powder metallurgy has played an important role in the field of titanium industry. The use of titanium powder metallurgy near molding technology, can be directly prepared or close to the finished product size parts, reducing the consumption of raw materials, shorten the processing cycle, the cost of conventional technology than 20% to 50%. In Japan, automotive powder metallurgy parts are widely used in engines and gearboxes, where connecting rods, seats, valves, pulleys, synchronizer hubs, synchro loops And so are complex and demanding high key parts. At present, the research of titanium powder metallurgy is in the rapid development stage, mainly including several aspects, one is the high quality low cost titanium powder preparation technology and its industrialization;

Second, titanium powder metallurgy even the preparation technology, at the same time in the automotive industry to promote the use of.

In addition, laser molding technology (integrated laser technology, CAD / CAM technology and the latest achievements in materials technology), according to the computer model, can be directly used alloy powder forming a complex shape of the final parts, the manufacture of titanium parts Between casting and forging, while the cost reduction of 15% to 30%, delivery time by 50% to 75%.

Metal powder injection molding technology (MIM) is a fast-growing near-net forming powder metallurgy technology, can produce high-quality, high-precision complex parts, is considered to be one of the most advantageous molding technology; Layer technology, but also a cost reduction can be a new process. It can be seen that the price of titanium material must be reduced from the development of low-cost new alloy system and improvement of production technology in order to solve the problem of titanium titanium price adjustment in the real sense, Competitiveness and development prospects.